Where can you get pure diamonds

The fancy colored diamond: how much do you know about it?

Just like colorless diamonds, under extreme heat and pressure conditions, fancy-colored diamonds also form in the earth's mantle, which are released to the surface through volcanic eruptions. The difference is that if foreign particles are trapped during the diamond crystallization process, the chemical formation process is changed and the result is a fancy, colored diamond. Each of these fancy colors is caused by a different structural irregularity, such as nitrogen for the yellow diamond, the boron for the blue diamond, or a significant number of impurities for the black diamond.

What are naturally colored diamonds and what are fancy colored diamonds?

Diamonds in the normal color range are between colorless and light yellow. They are described using the industry-standard D to Z color scale, in contrast to fancy-colored diamonds that have colors outside the Z range. These rare natural colored diamonds come in all colors of the rainbow, from red, pink, orange, blue, green, purple, yellow, brown, gray or black. According to the GIA (Gemological Institute Of America), only one in 10,000 diamonds has a fancy color or is a natural diamond. Black, brown, and yellow fancy colored diamonds cost less and are more common than green or blue fancy colored diamonds. It is reported that only 2 to 4 large natural blue diamonds are put on the market annually, and only 50 fancy blue natural diamonds have been sold at auction since 1999. The 45.52-carat deep gray and blue Hope Diamond is the world's most famous gem on display in the National Natural History Museum in Washington DC.

In comparison, red natural diamonds are the rarest of all fancy color diamonds and come in a single color intensity. Even experienced jewelers never see pure or fancy red diamonds in their lifetime. It is noteworthy that there are only about 20 to 30 true natural red diamonds in the world, most of which are less than half a carat in size, but which are still considered to be the most expensive diamonds in the price of colored diamonds per carat.

How rare are pink natural diamonds?

While up to 12 to 14 million carats of diamonds are mined, cut and sold annually, only 0.01% of them are fancy-colored diamonds. Of the 0.01%, around 80% are yellow and brown diamonds, while the remaining 20% ​​are black and gray diamonds.
The Argyle Diamond Mine, which is responsible for up to 90% of the global supply of pink natural diamonds, is slated to close in 2020 due to its low proportion of gem quality diamonds. This is expected to further affect the number of pink diamonds marketed annually, considering that their share is currently 0.0001%.
Fancy light pink diamonds that cost $ 10,000 per carat over 38 years ago now feature colored diamonds costing $ 220,000 per carat. In April 2017, the natural-colored diamond Pink Star with 59.60 carats became the most expensive jewel that was ever auctioned.
Due to the high demand and low supply of colored diamonds, a new technology is used to achieve the pink tint of colorless diamonds during the high pressure and high temperature process (HPHT). Pink colored natural diamonds are very popular for use in colored diamond chains, colored diamond rings and other colored diamond jewelry.

History of Fancy Diamonds

  1. The Cullinan Diamond, also known as the Star of Africa, has an estimated color diamond price of $ 2 billion. This white diamond weighed 621.35 grams before being split into nine large and several smaller diamonds. The stone was discovered in 1905 by Captain Fredrick Wells and named after Sir Thomas Cullinan, owner of Premier Diamond Mining Co., where it was found.

  2. The Heart of Eternity Diamond is one of the ten most valuable blue diamonds ever sold and was also discovered in the South African Premier Diamond Mine. This heart-shaped, fancy, vivid blue diamond has a price per colored diamond of $ 16,000,000. The diamond weighs 5.528 grams and is 27.64 carats.

  3. The Diamond of Kohinoor, also known as the Mountain of Light or the Diamond of Babur, has a diamond price of $ 1 billion. This 105.6 carat white diamond weighs 21.6 grams and was probably mined around 1300 in the Golkonda or Kollur mines in India. The diamond originally weighed 793 carats before the English Prince Albert had it cut to its present size to increase its brilliance. It is believed that this diamond possesses magical powers derived from Surya, the sun god or the Indian god Krishna. The Kohinoor diamond is currently in the Tower of London, where it is on public display along with other famous stones.

  4. The Centenary Diamond was discovered in the Premier Mine in 1986 and weighed 599 carats unpolished. The colorless diamond was later cut into a modified heart shape and has a color diamond price of $ 100 million. He was christened the Centenary Diamond by Julian Ogilvie Thompson on the occasion of the centenary of the De Beer Consolidated Mines.

  5. The Krupp diamond. The colorless diamond is a classic with a fascinating history and a color diamond price of $ 9,250,000. The Asscher cut diamond belonged to Elizabeth Taylor and is believed to have been one of her favorite pieces, as can be seen in many of her photos. Elizabeth Taylor passed it on in 2011, and the 33.19-carat diamond was auctioned off and sold to a South Korean conglomerate for a whopping $ 8,818,500, which even changed the industry price for a carat of colorless diamond.

The Heart of Eternity is one of the
ten most valuable blue diamonds ever sold

Development of natural, colored diamond cuts

A diamond cut is a style or design preset that is used when shaping a diamond for grinding. The cut of a diamond greatly affects its brilliance, making it less or more shiny.
The cut uses the material properties of a gemstone and consists of symmetrically arranged facets that together change the shape and appearance of a diamond crystal. Diamond cutters now thrive on new technologies like laser cutting and computer-aided design to create gemstones whose complexity and optical performance would have made it impossible to make earlier. The most popular natural colored diamond cuts include; the modern round diamond, the arrangement of facets and proportions of which have been perfected through both mathematical and empirical analysis, and the fancy cuts, which come in a variety of shapes and are derived from the round diamond. Princess, Asscher, Cushion, Heart, Pear and Emerald are some of the most famous cuts.
The best known sources for fancy diamonds are: India, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, Brazil, Central Africa, Angola, South Africa and Australia. Other locations for diamond mines are in Venezuela, Guyana and Indonesia.

Cremation process and rules

There are no hard and fast rules for cremation. Instead, burial rules vary based on tradition, culture, and religion. Sometimes decisions depend on the services and options that funeral homes offer. However, funeral directors and crematoriums usually work together to meet the needs of the deceased and the family.

The cremation process can be structured so that a ceremony takes place either before or after the actual cremation of the body. Funeral ashes are sometimes displayed in an urn at a ceremony after the cremation process is complete. This makes it impossible to say for sure how long a cremation will last.

A requiem or other religious ceremony can be performed either on the actual day of the cremation or beforehand as part of the cremation process. Of course, a medical certificate must always be deposited with the coroner or the doctor, stating the cause of death, in order to authorize the cremation of a corpse. Once this is achieved, the physical combustion process can begin.

If a formal religious ceremony such as If, for example, a mass is to take place, the undertakers often provide a coffin in which the deceased is kept. This coffin is not cremated with the body, so burial and cremation can be viewed as two separate parts of the cremation process. If the coffin is not cremated, the pure ashes of the deceased will be preserved. Here's how you can make diamonds from ashes.

How is a natural diamond made?

Diamonds are formed from carbon atoms and converted into a crystalline structure by high pressure (70 t / cm²) and high temperatures of about 1300 to 2000 ° C. The conversion of carbon into crystal diamonds occurs in the earth's mantle, 150 km from the earth's surface, as a result of geological processes that took place around 550 million to 4 billion years ago.

Although it is composed of the same element, influenced by the same physical processes, and formed over the same period of time and in the same geological region, there is a small but crucial difference between producing colorless and natural-colored diamonds. This is based on the chemical interaction with foreign particles that integrate into the carbon structure of the diamond during the crystallization process. This chemical process involves interactions with other elements such as boron and nitrogen due to unusually high temperature / pressure. Those who want to buy naturally colored diamonds must expect higher prices.

Black diamonds are created by inclusions of graphite in the diamond crystal.

How natural colored diamonds get their color

  1. Brown, Red, and Pink Diamonds: These natural diamonds are formed by a combination of strong pressure and heat that distort the crystal lattice, absorbing the green light, reflecting a pink, brown, and red hue.

  2. Buy blue colored diamonds: These gemstones get their color from boron, which combines with carbon in the crystal structure, absorbing the red, yellow and green areas of the color spectrum. They are among the most expensive copies.

  3. Green colored diamonds: Just as they are about to leave the top layer of the earth's crust, these fancy diamonds absorb naturally occurring radiation, causing them to reflect a green hue by absorbing red and yellow light.

  4. Purple and Purple Diamonds: So far, distortion has been the speculated cause of these natural diamonds. However, it is believed that the presence of hydrogen is partly responsible for their hue.

  5. Orange and yellow colored diamonds: The remarkable hue of yellow and orange colored diamonds can be assigned to an element. Nitrogen. As a diamond forms, nitrogen atoms arrange themselves to absorb blue light and produce a yellow color. A certain grouping of nitrogen atoms is also responsible for the shading of orange diamonds.

  6. Black diamonds: These opaque gemstones are caused by inclusions of graphite in the diamond crystal.

  7. Gray colored diamonds: This fancy diamond is colored by hydrogen and more rarely by boron (how this happens is unknown, otherwise boron always forms blue). The defect causes the stone to absorb all wavelengths of light equally. The gray color can tint almost any other shade, for example gray-green, also known as "olive," and the famous gray-blue, sometimes tinged with purple and found in the Argyle mine.

Buy colored diamonds?

The prices for natural colored diamonds are different from those for colorless diamonds. Naturally colored diamonds cost according to the color. When determining the value, the other "Cs" predominate by far (in contrast to color, the categories clarity, cut and carat are meant, i.e. purity, cut and carat). The most fundamental principle in trading natural diamonds, whether fancy-colored or colorless, is: “The rarer the diamond, the higher its value.” Each diamond has its own characteristics, and its price is therefore determined by regularity or rarity. All of this must be taken into account when buying colored diamonds.

On average, the prices of natural diamonds have increased by 122% over the past decade. For example, a Geneva-based fund manager bought an extremely rare bright orange gem in the spring of 2016 at a price of $ 1 million per carat and a blue gem of 14.62 carats in May 2016 for $ 57.5 Dollar millions at another Geneva auction, making it the most expensive diamond in the world ever to be bought in an auction.

Although the colored diamonds listed below are rarer than white diamonds, the cost of colored diamonds is usually lower than the price of white diamonds of comparable quality and carats due to the generally lower demand.

The middle price to be able to buy colored diamonds includes stones with less saturation due to secondary colors.

Fancy Intense Yellow (Canary)
Light Brownish Pink - Light Pink

The rarest fancy diamonds are significantly more expensive than white diamonds. The value increases exponentially the higher the carat and color intensity. For example, a 7.37 carat intensely purple diamond became one at a color diamond price of $ 819,201 per carat, a bright green diamond at a color diamond price of $ 1.22 million per carat, and the 12.03 carat Blue Moon diamond became one Color diamond sold at $ 50 million per carat, making it the only diamond ever sold for more than $ 4 million per carat.

Which factors influence the price of natural diamonds?

Some of the factors that affect the price of colored diamonds are:

  1. Origin: The price of colored diamonds depends on whether the gemstone was made naturally or in a laboratory. Natural colored diamonds are significantly more valuable than artificial colored diamonds that are made in a laboratory. However, an untrained eye without proper equipment cannot distinguish between the two. Advanced gemological institutes run by the GIA (Gemological Institute of America) have the appropriate tools and experts to identify and categorize the properties of the natural colored diamond, but mainly its origin.

  2. Colour: To determine the price of colored diamonds by color, experts take into account the hue and saturation of the diamond. The lively, deep and strong colors such as fantasy intense and fantasy deep are rarer and more valuable and therefore more expensive than the light, natural colors. The value of a natural colored diamond goes down when there is a secondary color. However, when the secondary color is rare, the prices of colored diamonds go up. Sometimes differences in color are so subtle that the human eye cannot see them.

  3. Carat: This refers to the weight of the diamond. A 1-carat diamond weighs 0.2 grams, which means that a 5-carat diamond weighs only 1 gram. Heavier, colored diamonds are considered rare and therefore the price of colored diamonds per carat will increase significantly. Natural-colored 1-carat diamonds are therefore 2 to 4 times more expensive than half-carat diamonds.

  4. Purity: This term indicates the quality of reflection and luster of the diamond, as well as the amount of inclusions or external defects that affect how clear the diamond is. Clarity is measured on a scale that ranges from error-free to internal error-free and of other values ​​as some errors are invisible to the naked eye. It is important to note that colored diamond rings and colored diamond chains do not use flawless stones as these are mainly used for investment purposes.

  5. Cut: The jeweler cuts to highlight the rarest and most valuable properties of the diamond. For example; is the shape of the natural colored diamond symmetrical? Does it emphasize and deepen its color? Does it look bigger than actual weight? Is the surface shiny and does the colored diamond sparkle? A properly cut diamond is 30% more valuable than a badly cut diamond. Some natural colored diamonds may be good quality but poorly cut.

The Moussaieff is the most famous red diamond there is.

What is the most expensive color for diamonds?

Red diamonds are the rarest and most expensive natural diamonds. They only occur in a single intensity, which is also fancy. When red diamonds appear with a purple modifying color (the most common secondary hue in red diamonds), the prices of colored diamonds vary dramatically based on the percentage of saturation of red in the stone. However, the price for a 0.20 ct purple colored diamond is about $ 300,000 per carat and about $ 500,000 for a 0.40 ct.

The red color of diamonds is so rare that the price of colored diamonds increases exponentially, even when they appear as a modifying secondary color in extremely low saturation diamonds. While a natural brown diamond is priced at $ 2,400 per carat, the price of a reddish brown diamond can be as high as $ 30,000 per carat - more than twelve times that due to the effect of the color red. No other color works as powerfully when used as a modifier .
The most famous red diamond is the Moussaieff Red - a 5.11ct pure red diamond that was purchased at over $ 1.6 million per carat.

The Moussaieff is the most famous red diamond there is.
A naturally colored diamond ring setting

Naturally colored diamond jewelry

Natural colored diamonds are used for jewelry such as colored diamond rings, necklaces and pendants. However, the most popular are colored diamond rings and colored diamond chains.

Colored diamond rings come in a variety of settings, from simple designs like prong, bezel or tension settings that are easy to wear, to cut designs like pavé and halo that add a shimmering effect to your colored diamond. Other designs for colored diamond rings include; Asscher, Emerald, Heart or Princess, available in all possible sizes and materials such as yellow gold, rose gold and white gold for men and women.

Colored diamond rings and colored diamond chains can be placed on metals such as platinum, gold, palladium or silver. Platinum and gold are the most valued metals for colored diamond jewelry settings such as colored diamond engagement rings and colored diamond necklaces.

A naturally colored diamond ring setting

Synthetic colored diamond

Synthetic diamonds, commonly referred to as laboratory diamonds, are diamonds that are made in a controlled process that mimics the natural geological process of diamond formation in the earth's crust. They are made of the same material as natural diamonds and then crystallize in an isotropic 3D shape.

The methods of making synthetic diamonds include: HPHT (High Pressure High Temperature), CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) and NPD.

  1. HPHT synthetic colored diamonds are grown using the high pressure, high temperature process. The process uses three dies (the belt press, the cubic press, and the split ball) to provide the high pressures and temperatures required to make synthetic diamonds. Diamond seeds are placed at the bottom of the press and the inner part of the press is heated to temperatures above 1400 ° C to melt the material. The molten metal dissolves the high purity carbon source, which is then transported to the small diamond nuclei and precipitates, forming a large synthetic colored diamond.

  2. CVD synthetic color diamonds are developed from a hydrocarbon gas mixture. This process is easier and more flexible for laboratory research than the HPHT method. It also does not require high pressure, as diamond formation occurs in one. Pressure less than 27 kPa occurs. The CVD colored diamond growth involves the preparation of the substrate, the introduction of different amounts of gases into a chamber and their activation. The gases always contain a source of carbon, typically methane and hydrogen with a typical ratio of 1:99. The gases are ionized into chemically active radicals in the growth chamber using microwave power, a hot filament, an arc discharge, a welding torch, a laser, an electron beam, or other means.

  3. Synthetic colored NPD diamonds have been made using the CVD process since the 1950s. Here, a flat plateau substrate made of metal or ceramic with a micrometer diamond is sown and the seeds are placed under vacuum in a chamber. Hydrogen and methane are then introduced into the chamber and the mixture is rapidly heated. The gases react with each other and with the seed diamond, so that a diamond layer forms on the seed, which is also known as the seed diamond, which grows in a columnar shape. Thicknesses of up to several millimeters can be achieved.

Colored diamonds: treatment of precious stones

Most of the gemstones in the colored diamond trade have been treated to change their appearance. This change is necessary so that the fancy diamonds can be used in jewelry such as colored diamond rings and colored diamond chains.
In addition to conventional grinding and polishing, however, gemstones can be treated to change their color or clarity, and additionally improve their appearance. The process can also improve or in some cases reduce the durability of the colored diamond.

Colored diamonds: forms of gem treatment

  • Surface coating. This involves changing the appearance of a gemstone by applying a coloring agent such as paint to the back surfaces of gemstones or part of the surface of a gemstone. This often leads to a color change.

  • (HPHT) treatment: In this type of treatment, a colored diamond is heated to high temperatures under high confinement pressure to change its color. This process can remove or reduce a brownish tint, making the gemstone colorless. Other types of diamonds can be converted from brown to yellow, orange-yellow, and yellowish-green or blue colors by this process.

  • Irradiation: When a colored diamond is exposed to an artificial source of radiation to change its color, heat treatment is sometimes followed to further change the color. Neutron and electron radiation are the most common forms of artificial radiation. This treatment makes it possible to create black, green, teal, deep yellow, orange, pink and red diamonds, which are often combined with a second heating step to achieve these colors.
A LONITÉ diamond engagement ring

Colored diamonds offered by Lonite

LONITÉ, one of the world's leading manufacturers of colored diamonds and colored diamond jewelery, is headquartered in the Swiss economic capital, Zurich. You can buy colored diamonds here. Production takes place in a state-of-the-art Swiss laboratory, which means that colored diamonds cost less than natural ones. First, the ash is measured to see if it contains enough carbon to be converted into a colored diamond. Then the ashes or hair are mixed with a special chemical to form a nano powder. A contaminant remover is then applied in a special solvent to remove unstable chemicals.

A special treatment ensures that the remaining carbon is adequately preserved while other extracted elements are reduced to a fraction. Oxygen is removed and inert, protective and reducing gases are injected to protect the ashes or hair from oxidation. Because the carbon from hair or ashes is then stored in a safe and resistant cabinet in a moist chemical environment to increase purity by removing heavy metals. The program-controlled process of specific temperatures, stirring speeds and the addition of chemical reagents ensures the carbon quality. At the end of this final purification step, the carbon purity reaches 99.99% (4N purity). The cleaned, extracted carbon is converted into flake graphite in the form of a cylinder. Before being inserted into the diamond synthesis machine, the cylinder is carefully wrapped in protective and cantilevered materials that prepare it for the final technical steps that require pressure and temperature measurement, insulation and protection. The conversion takes 6 to 9 months, depending on the size and color of the colored diamond to be produced.

LONITÉ's colored diamonds are available in sizes from 0.25 ct to 2.0 ct and in 6 cuts. Brilliant, Princess, Radiant, Asscher, Emerald and Heart.

You can buy colored diamonds in 4 different colors; of course amber, red, blue and greenish yellow.

LONITÉ colored diamonds are priced from $ 1,250 to $ 21,000 and are also available as colored diamond jewelry.