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Mohammad Mossadegh

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mini200pxPostage stamp from the Iranian Post to commemorate the 100th birthday of Dr. Mossadegh
frameless right100px Signature of Mossadegh
Mohammad Mossadegh( ;
  • 1880 or * June 16, 1882 The exact date of Mossadegh's birth is controversial and led to a controversy in the Iranian parliament in 1950. According to the electoral law in force at the time, the upper limit for parliamentarians was 70 years. According to the information in the birth book (date of birth: 1258 lunar calendar corresponds to 1879/80) Mossadegh should no longer have been allowed to run for parliament. Mossadegh then stated that the information in his birth book was incorrect and that he was three years younger than stated in the official documents.
  • Winter 1879: Mehdi Shamshiri: Zendeghi Nameh Mohammad Mossadegh. (Biography of Mohammad Mossadegh - From birth to the end of his upbringing and naturalization as a Swiss citizen) 2nd. Edition. lulu.com, 2011, p. 1 and Mehdi Shamshiri: Noyaftehai dar Ertebat ba Mohammad Mossadegh. Pars Printhouse, Huston, undated, pp. 266f. (Copy of an excerpt from the birth register; register entry was made in 1297 (1918) according to Mossadegh's own information for the application for passports for himself and his children. Mossadegh stated his age in 1297 (1918) as 39; these details were followed by two Witnesses - Abol Hasan Tabatabai (half-brother of Mossadegh) and Mirza Kazem Aalam Alsaltaneh confirmed by signature), p. 268 (copy of a document of the commission admitting candidates to the 6th parliament, confirming that Mossadegh was in 1305 (1926) month Tir is 46 years old).
  • 1880: The Islamic Republic of Iran dates the date of birth to 1880 (see commemorative stamp for the 100th birthday of Mossadegh). This date was given as the date of birth by Mossadegh when applying for his passport. The year 1880 is also found in the Encyclopædia Britannica as the date of birth. See britannica.com
  • 1882: A website operated by the followers of Mossadegh, however, shows June 16, 1882. Mossadegh himself stated the 29th Rajab in 1299 (May 20, 1882) in his memoirs. in Tehran; † March 5, 1967 in Ahmad Abad, Alborz Province, Iran) was an Iranian politician. Mossadegh was a co-founder of the National Front and twice Prime Minister of Iran between 1951 and 1953.
At the age of 14 he became finance administrator of Khorasan Province. From 1909 to 1914 he studied economics and law in Paris and Neuchâtel, and received his doctorate with a legal dissertation. After returning to Iran, he returned to work as a tax officer. After the end of World War I, Mossadegh became governor of Fars Province.
In 1920 Mossadegh became Minister of JusticeMossadegh, Mohammed.In: Munzinger Online / People - International Biographical Archive, URL: munzinger.de (accessed on March 12, 2016) and in 1921 in the cabinet of Prime Minister Ahmad Qavām Finance Minister. The financial reform he proposed was rejected by parliament and Mossadegh resigned from office. In 1923, Mossadegh became Iran's Foreign Minister in the cabinet of Hassan Pirnia. After the resignation of Hassan Pirnia, Mossadegh ran for parliamentary elections and was elected as a member of the 5th and 6th legislative periods. In 1928 Mossadegh withdrew from politics because the law forbade the acceptance of public office by Iranians with dual citizenship. After the Anglo-Soviet invasion of the Iran-Anglo-Soviet invasion in 1941, Mossadegh ran again for parliament and became a member of the 14th legislature. Mossadegh was defeated in the elections for the 15th and 16th legislative periods, but was then able to win a by-election in June 1950. The election for the 16th legislative period was initially controversial, as Mossadegh had already passed the maximum age limit for MPs, which is limited to 70 years by the constitution.
From 1951 to 1953 - with a brief interruption in July 1952 - Mossadegh was Prime Minister of Iran. His time as Prime Minister was marked by the conflict with the British government following the nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, which sparked the Abadan crisis. Mossadegh was militarily overthrown on August 19, 1953 by intelligence services of the USA and Great Britain (Operation Ajax), then charged with treason and sentenced to three years in prison and subsequent house arrest. Mossadegh lived on his estate in Ahmad Abad until his death.
miniMirza Hedayat (seated in the middle) with Mirza Mohammad (right) in Khorasan (ca.1892)
Mohammad Mossadegh was the son of Mirza Hedayat (proper Hedayatollah) Ashtiani, Vazir Daftar, Farhad Diba: Mohammed Mossadegh. A Political Biography. 1986, p. 3 ff. Of a financial administrator (mostofi), and the Qajar princess Schahzadeh Nadschmeh-al-Saltaneh (1858–1933). Mirza Mohammad, as Mohammad Mossadegh was called "Mossadegh" before the surname was adopted, was through the line of his mother Nadschmeh-al-Saltaneh - a granddaughter of Abbas Mirza - cousin of Nāser ad-Din Schāh and sister of Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma, a nephew of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah. Mirza Mohammad's father, Mirza Hedayatollah, was the cousin of Mostofi-al-Mamalek, the father of Hassan Mostofi. Mirza Mohammad had two brothers, Mirza Hossein and Mirza Ali. Mirza Mohammad received his school education from private tutors.
miniMirza Mohammad (ca.1896)
On September 9, 1888, his father asked Nāser ad-Din Shāh that his son Mirza Mohammad be Mostofi-aval(First Treasurer) should be appointed. Nāser ad-Din Shāh complied with the request and set Mirza Mohammad as Mostofi-avalon the court's payroll. Mirza Mohammad was nine years old at the time. Ketab Kheyrat Hesan, Tehran 1928 (1307 lunar calendar), p. 28, col. 2. At the age of twelve, Mirza Mohammad was hired by Mirza Mahmoud, the financial administrator of Khorasan, and with one monthly income of 120 tomans from the “cash differences” account. During this time Mirza Mohammad was trained as a Mostofi.
When his father died on August 29, 1892, Nāser ad-Din Shāh appointed Mirza Mohammad's older brother, Mirza Hossein, to be Vazir Daftar(Minister). Nāser ad-Din Shāh bestowed the title on the younger brother, Mirza Ali Movasegh-al-Saltaneh(The Trusted One of the Kingdom) and Mirza Mohammad received the title Mossadegh-al-Saltaneh(The righteous of the kingdom). At the age of 13, Mohammad Mossadegh-al-Saltaneh had four incomes: part of the pension of his grandfather Firuz Mirza, a brother of Mohammad Shah, an honorary salary as Mostofi, the salary as a financial clerk for Khorasan and, after the death of his father, part of his pension. Gholam Hossein Afzal ol Molk: Afzal al tavarikh.Ketab Khane Melli, Tehran, undated, Vol. 1, p. 355.
Three years after his father's death, his mother, Nadschmeh-al-Saltaneh, married Mirza Fazl-Allah Vakil-al-Molk, the private secretary of Mozaffar al-Din Shah, in 1895. Mirza Mohammad's aunt and his mother's sister, Nadschmeh-al-Saltaneh, were already married to Mozaffar ad-Din Shah at that time. Zendeghi Nameh Mohammad Mossadegh.(Biography of Mohammad Mossadegh - From birth to the end of his education and naturalization as a Swiss citizen). 2nd. Edition. lulu.com, 2011, p. 26. On December 21, 1896, Mohammad Mossadegh-al-Saltaneh was appointed Khorasan Treasurer by order of Mozaffar al-Din Shah.
Mohammad Mossadegh-al-Saltaneh made a great fortune under the reign of Mozaffar al-Din Shah. In just ten years he became one of the largest landowners in Iran. Published in the beginning of Iran's Constitutional Revolution Notes from Saif-Allah VahidniyaA list of 93 large landowners is listed, on which, in addition to Mohammad Mossadegh-al-Salteneh, his mother, stepfather, brother, two brothers-in-law, his aunt and uncle Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma are listed. Sayfallah Vahidnia: Khaterat Siasi va Tarikhi.Ferdosi Publications, Tehran 1983, pp. 85-86.
miniMohammad Mossadegh before the Constitutional Revolution (ca.1907)
During the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, which lasted from 1905 to 1911, in which the Iranians fought for a constitution and a parliament against the absolutist rule of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah, Mohammad Mossadegh appeared as an opponent of the parliamentary movement. After the constitution of the first parliament, the deputies were initially occupied with disempowering the financial administrators (Mostofis) and building a transparent financial system that could serve as the basis for the creation of a budget and state administration. It was not until 1911 that these efforts were to be successful with the appointment of the American Morgan Shusters.
Mohammad Mossadegh had expected his older brother's post - one Vazir Daftar - to take over. After the Constitutional Revolution, however, the previously common direct transfer of an office within a family was no longer possible. In addition, Parliament had the usual special payments (Rosoum)abolished for concessions granted by Mostofis, so that the office had lost its financial attractiveness. Mossadegh decided to give up his post as Mostofi and run for the newly established parliament. Parliamentarism was still completely new in Iran. The right to vote was a class vote and since the MPs were initially not financially rewarded for their work, several mandates remained without candidates. The formal requirement for the candidacy was that one lived in the constituency that one wanted to represent, was a member of the relevant class, held no public office and was at least 30 years old. In Khorasan, where Mossadegh lived, the mandate had already been granted, but in Isfahan, where Mossadegh's wife owned two properties, there was no representative of the notable class. Since the election date had already passed, the governor of Isfahan wrote a letter to the speaker of parliament naming Mohammad Mossadegh as the elected member of Isfahan for the class of notables. However, Parliament's electoral scrutiny commission refused to confirm Mossadegh as a member of parliament because there had been no election in Isfahan and Mossadegh had not yet reached the age of 30. In addition, he did not live in Isfahan and was not known there. Intervening in parliament was unsuccessful, as MP Seyyed Hassan Taqizadeh prevented a vote in Mossadegh's favor by referring to the election review commission. After that defeat, Mossadegh became a bitter political opponent of Taqizadeh. Mehdi Shamshiri: Zendeghi Nameh Mohammad Mossadegh.