Nietzsche read Hume

Nietzsche's Lukian. Incipit Parödia Between Empedocles and Zarathustra There aren't many who manage to jump into a volcano, as in the famous case of Empedocles, or even stranger in the case of Nietzsche's Zarathustra, who returns three days later. In addition, it has been observed quite often, at least among German scholars, that the figure of Empedocles is of decisive importance for Nietzsche's Zarathustra.1 But what does that mean? Although Empedocles plays a crucial role in his notes on The Pre-Platonic Philosophers, Nietzsche more or less excludes him from his philosophy in the tragic age of the Greeks - both probably unpublished books. Likewise unpublished and even less well known are Nietzsche's drafts for the 'Death of Empedocles', which above all aroused the interest of scholars who tend to make comparisons with Holderlin's much more developed draft for his own death of Empedocles. Like Empedocles (approx. 392–432 BC), Nietzsche is both a philosopher and a poet. I'm not talking about Nietzsche's little poems or loosely composed dithyrambs, but rather about his musical parody symphony Also sprach Zarathustra. And I would like to argue that the connection between the poet and the philosopher is more sustainable for Nietzsche and Empedocles than for any other thinker and poet about whom the same could be said, including Parmenides on the part of philosophy, but also Heidegger (at least according to his own view ) and, on the part of poetry, Friedrich Hölderlin or Rainer Maria Rilke, Stefan George, René Char, or Wallace Stevens. 3. 1 Apparently to date back to Ziegler's Friedrich Nietzsche and Baumgartner “Hölderlin and Nietzsche's Zarathustra” are the relatively newer publications by Vivarelli, “Empedocles and Zarathustra” as well as Soering's “Nietzsche's Empedocles Plan” and Crawford, To Nietzsche: Dionysus, I Love You! Ariadne. Aiken, “Nietzsche and his Zarathustra” and Trecanni, “A book you can't do anything with - Zarathustra's preface 1-5” and even further, Winteler, Friedrich Nietzsche, the first tragic philosopher, can also be counted here. 75 Empedocles ’eloquence reduces its“ value ”when it comes to his position as a natural philosopher of the time and the spiritual and physical evolution among the so-called φυσιολόγοι of antiquity, just as Nietzsche's“ style ”reduces its importance for today's specialist philosophy. One important difference, however, is that Empedocles' philosophical reputation increases when he is read as a cosmologist, a reading unfortunately linked to the recent tendency to assume that he did not write the many and varied texts which the ancient authors gave him attributed. Two fragments of poetry have survived. One is traditionally called Peri physeos (On Nature), as Diogenes Laërtios reminded us twice, and a poem about the fourfold roots of being and becoming / transformation, under the manifold unifying love (the same to the unequal) or friendship, Tribal feuds and dividing 'strife' or hostility or war are followed by the literally mysterious or mysterious Katharmoi or atonement songs. So apparently different are these, as Charles Kahn argues that while each is 'understandable' on its own, both taken together seem to "constitute a fragmented personality" .2 I am not following Brian Inwood's thesis that there was only one poem , 3 And not because, in the manner of Vlastos, the Greeks (which we tend to do, or rather are compelled to do) separated their religion from their physics, but in conscientious consideration of the difference between the esoteric and the exoteric. One can remember Nietzsche's letter of November 6, 1884 to Franz Overbeck in Basel, who says in this spirit: "The best and essential can only be communicated from person to person, it cannot and should not be 'public'" . (No. 553: KGB 6, p. 554) It was this classic distinction which Empedocles violated precisely by writing a second poem about the secret doctrines which he 'should' have kept secret. The fact that his Katharmoi should only be addressed to a single listener, namely Pausanias, is additional proof of his esoteric content. Maybe this is true, maybe not. It is in the nature of well-kept secrets that they are precisely those secrets that we do not know. 2 Kahn, "Religion and Natural Philosophy in Empedocles’ Doctrine of the Soul, "p. 3. 3 Inwood," Introduction, "The Poem of Empedocles. Cf. Hoessly, Katharsis: Reinigungs als Heilverfahren, esp. P. 189ff. 3. Nietzsche's Lukian. Incipit Parödia 76 Today's scholars claim, as stated above, that Empedocles probably wrote no more than the fragments which - a very convenient claim - are available to us and in fact come down to us.4 Therefore, it is increasingly common to claim that Empedocles wrote only one poem, On Nature, which consisted of the fragments that are now claimed to have formed the Katharmoi, or doctrine of purification.5 Catherine Osborne has been provocative against the anti-hermeneutic Turning tendency, 6 when these 'fragments' are taken out of context, precisely as 'the' fragments of the pre-Socratics. We generally lack the connection: not only that of the (mostly missing) Greek religion (what does that really mean?) And of 'myth', as we call it, but also the Judeo-Christian or theological context under whose conditions this Fragments are often passed on to us, especially as philosophers, when we hunt for good quotation bites, so to speak, that are inserted into the texts that have come to us, —7 an effort that is not exactly exaggerated when you consider that the standard texts have been 'fragments' for centuries helpful in quotation marks or even represented as monolithic sections.8 4 Today's researchers tend, just as Nietzsche observed in his inaugural lecture in Basel, to take their own habits and taste judgments as a yardstick for what is actually about their study objects. is possible and what is not. 5 In contrast, see Bollack's "Empedocles: Two Theologies, Two Projects" and in the same volume see an overview of the arguments for and against Janko, "Empedocles’ Physica Book 1 ". Van der Ben rearranges the fragments commonly found in the Katharmoi as a prelude to Peri Physeios. See also Bollack's translation, Empedocle, Les Purifications, Un projet de paix universelle and Van der Ben, The Poem of Empedocles ’Peri Physeos. In addition to Van der Ben see Lambridis, Empedocles. 6 For a broader discussion (with a specific focus on Empedocles) see Osbornes Rethinking Early Greek Philosophy. In that Osborne [now Rowett] identifies Empedocles as the author of the Strasbourg papyrus, Osborne himself takes the other direction when she comes to speak of Empedocles, and moreover she focuses more on individual poems: “Given the nature of the evidence we cannot exclude the possibility that Empedocles wrote one work on nature, often called katharmoi ". Osborne, "Empedocles Recycled," p. 29. 7 See Mejer, "Biography and Doxography". 8 See Diogenes Laërtios, Lives and Opinions of Famous Philosophers, as well as the Loeb edition of Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. On Diogenes Laërtios see Mejer, "Diogenes Laertius and the Transmission of Greek Philosophy" in addition, to ensure that Nietzsche's contributions to the sources between Empedocles and Zarathustra 77 Lukian of Samosata, following on from Aristotle, we share both Lukian of Samosata and also his (presumably) younger contemporary Diogenes Laërtios (an adopted name that alludes to the Homeric epithet for Odysseus: god-born son of Laertes) 9 with much of what we know about Empedocles to this day. And as we shall see, Lukian is perhaps most important in this context. Even if Lukian is rarely read directly today, those who have read it include many European authors from Erasmus to Thomas More, from David Hume to Jonathan Swift and of course Nietzsche, as well as many others. Experts on Lucian aside (this is a tiny number), it is more than routine that scholars today don't read Lukian and consequently have no idea who he was, and this can (and has) led to amusing contradictions within source science, including with authors such as Swift and Hume as well as Goethe and Nietzsche.10 customer and criticism of Diogenes Laërtius. See also Nietzsche, Philologische Schriften (1867–1873), KGW. 9 Cf. Nietzsche's contributions to source studies and criticism of Diogenes Laërtius, reprinted in KGW II2, Philologische Schriften 1867–1873, pp. 191–245, a volume that also contains Nietzsche's “Analecta Lertiana” in Latin, ibid., P. 171-190. 10 Baier, Death and Character laments this lack of research skills: "although Lucian was widely read in Hume’s day, the overlap between readers of Hume these days, and readers of Lucian, seems to have been almost nil." P. 103 Irritating here for Baier, because this does not correspond to any esoteric source detail, but rather a more common genesis of reading “on the death bed”. For Baier, everything depends on the credibility of Adam Smith's report about it: "In his letter Smith says that when he called on Hume on August 8, Hume was reading Lucian's 'Dialogues of the Dead'", here p. 100. But in the Indeed, this will be discussed in more detail below, the dialogue does not roughly correspond to the dialogues of gods and deaths, but rather and more precisely Lukian's cataplous, as Baier specifies, after some research and another eyewitness, namely Hume's doctor, William Cullen, who in detail refers to Lukian's cataplous. See p. 103. But, should Adam Smith be believed or not? For Baier, Smith is far too general, because Lukian's Kataplous in “Lucian's much imitated and influential 'Dialogues of the Dead,' at least not in editions of Lucian such as the Loeb, or as far as I have been able to find out, in editions Hume would have used ”(p. 104), is not always available. A problem for further source research is that at least Hume, as Baier confirms, reads his Lukian in Greek. The source for Baier here is Fieser, 3. Nietzsche's Lukian. Incipit Parödia 78 After Lukian was characterized by Eunapius, a 5th century author, as a 'serious', one could also say 'the truth-seeking' liar, 11 he was translated into Latin by Erasmus and into German by Wieland, the latter as early as 1788. Nietzsche's comparison of human beings with insects ["the mosquito"] at the beginning of About Truth and Lies in the extra-moral sense as well as in Zarathustra (and in fact, Nietzsche in the sense of his perspective view often commands from an atmospheric height above the earth or , now geologically speaking, the underworld) refers to Lukian's dialogue Hermotimus, which, once you start reading it, seems to be increasingly relevant for a Nietzsche reading. There are, as we shall see, obvious parallels between some of Nietzsche's more distinctive loci and Lukian's most popular images, including Nietzsche's seductive references to truth and Lukian's True Story [Ἀληθῶν Διηγημάτων], which paradoxically includes the Cretan proverb that, as the author assures, not a single word in it was “true”, because I had nothing to tell true (what I experience in my life is not worth talking about); and so I had to make up my mind to lie, but in such a way that I went to work a little more sincerely than the rest of the world.12 Lukian presents his own excuses as a variation of the 'generalizations' or 'lies' of other historians in his stories dar: Because at least I am telling the one truth: I am lying. With this free admission I hope to avoid all reproaches about the content of my story.13 Lukian could not make up his mind to express his warning more clearly: “'I write about things that I have neither seen nor experienced or heard from others, and which are just as little real as ever possible. 'Now believe them, whoever feels like it! ”14 Lukian's tonality is not to be confused with that of Nietzsche, however, as we have Nietzsche's Some Early Responses to David Hume, p. 103 See, however, Babich, “On Signatures and Taste, Hume's Mortal Leavings and Lucian”. 11 Eunapius, Vit.Soph. II, 1, 9. Quoted from Nesselrath, who takes this as the last of three epigraphs. Cf. his essay “Lukian: Leben und Wert”, p. 11. 12 Lukian, “The true story”, in: Lukians Werke, Vol. 6, p. 686. 13 Ibid. See Davies, "Description by Negation." 14 Ibid. Lukian von Samosata 79 famous frustrating explanation (especially for analytical philosophers) in Beyond Good and Evil Remember, when speaking, he is "as an old [old] philologist" about contra the rule and the expectation of the "regularity of nature" to argue that, Nietzsche teases, “you physicists speak as proudly as if - -” (JGB § 22). And it is important to note this point, especially in a text that uses so many dashes, that, according to this high Kantian allusion, Nietzsche uses not just one but two dashes to argue first that the same conformity is exclusively from interpretation results, not from facts as such, and then conclusively admits: “that this too is only interpretation - and you will be eager enough to object - well, so much the better. - “(ibid.) 15 In addition, as we can see, there is also Nietzsche's comparison of people with mosquitoes flying through the air, at the beginning of Ueber Truth and Lies in the extra-moral sense, where the view of atmospheric heights above the earth Not only to the Stoics, but much more to a number of Lukian's dialogues (not only Hermotimus, but also Alethe Diegemata, etc.). In addition, Lukians Κατάπλους ἢ Τύραννος is, at least in part, the most influential source for Nietzsche's Übermensch.16 But for this reflection on word relationships (Übermensch - 'υπεράνθρωπος [hyper-anthropos]) and considered in a certain cycle of death or conversations with the dead, especially of birth and rebirth, there is another necessary reflection on Empedocles: since the doctrine of return is Empedocleic, although there is arguably an older Orphic tradition as well.17 But beyond this common connection, I argue that the context of Lucian's cataplous, or decline , including the thematic emphasis on the tyrant as such in the underworld, including a reflection on the contrast with this worldly life and perspective discussed locus: JGB § 4 and § 14. 16 This is by far the most common most common attribution. Because it is certainly true that there are also other attributions. Pavur z. B. reads in his Nietzsche as humanist the superman in the context of a humanistic renaissance. And you can read it à la Faust or à la Ayn Rand or even as Robert Solomon (among others) did, as the megalopsychos, as Aristotle suggested, or in the spirit of Montanus (and Attis) or Christ. And so on. 17 Cf. Kranz, Empedocles, McGahey, The Orphic Moment, as well as, if esoteric, Kayser, Akróasis. 3. Nietzsche's Lukian.Incipit Parödia 80 tive on human honor and its inevitable variability, offers an essential contextualization of Zarathustra's teaching that man is something that must be overcome and, moreover, provides us with a context for reading Zarathustra as an empedoclean: as fortune tellers , Poet, healer: “In the end they become seers, singers, doctors and princes among earthly people and from this grow up to gods rich in honor.” (Empedocles, Atonement, DK 146) With this Empedocles is closed as an example of free death consider: someone who goes to the ground: “One can never think of Empedocles without deep sorrow” (KSA 7, p. 537). We also read in one of Nietzsche's plans for the death of Zarathustra: Act III. In happiness he proclaims the superman and his teaching. All fall away. He dies when the vision leaves him, in pain at the suffering he has created. Death celebration. "We killed him" - noon and eternity. (KSA 10, p. 496) 18 Anke Bennholdt-Thomsen emphasizes that Zarathustra as a “fisherman of men” should be compared less with the disciples of Christ than with the philosophical fisherman in Lukian's The Fisherman or the Resurrected [lat. Revivescentes sive Piscator, Gr. Ἀναβιοῦντες ἢ Ἁλιεύς] .19 Indeed, the connection with Lucian is the only thing that makes sense with regard to Zoroaster's 'golden fishing rod' and related metaphors. And this is the only way to get to the first section of the fourth, parodic book of Zarathustra with a certain clarity (also taking into account Empedocles with his "honey sacrifice" and his reference to Cybele), where we not only talk about a certain (and of all people " goldene [n] ”) read fishing rod, but also about the“ honey ”in Zarathustra's veins. 18 The death of Zarathustra has been a theme in literature for more than a century. David Allison and others speak of Zarathustra's death as do C. G. Jung and Theobald Ziegler in his lectures (1897/98) in Strasbourg: Friedrich Nietzsche. Like Leo Strauss afterwards, Ziegler emphasizes, “'so Zarathustra's downfall began'” p. 126 (and ff). In his dissertation, published in 1905, Awxentieff argues that Zarathustra dies in the fourth, unpublished part of Also sprach Zarathustra. See Awxentieff, Kultur-ethisches Ideal Nietzsches, p. 30. 19 See Bennholdt-Thomsen, Nietzsches Also sprach Zarathustra as a literary phenomenon, p. 127 f. Lukian von Samosata 81 (“yellow, white, good, ice-fresh honeycomb gold honey”) . (Z IV, The Honey Sacrifice) .20 Empedocles also writes of sacrifices in the original, "golden age" in the following way: Among them, Ares, the god of war, was not worshiped, nor was the battle cry, nor was their king Zeus ... but Cypris [Aphrodite] was queen ... reconciled with sacred images and paintings of living things ... pure myrrh and fragrant incense, throws yellow honey on the bottom of the libation - Empedocles, Katharmoi, DK 128 (Kirk-Raven-Schofield 411) As we know, and as the doxography unfolds in detail, Empedocles was known both for his high reputation or family fortune and for the nature and nature of his donations to the common good (including a large 'ox' made from barley, figs and honey). It should also be noted that such a thing was not necessarily a 'good thing' to an ancient Greek community if certain gifts were expected to be received from the higher classes in the classic form of an 'animal sacrifice'. 21 The parody I have here, beyond the language of the 'honey offering' (which can already be heard in Zarathustra's prologue) pursue: “I am tired of my wisdom, like the bee that has collected too much honey, I need the hands that stretch out”, it shows also in Nietzsche's later description of his art of writing in Ecce Homo as a fishhook; and it also corresponds to Lukian's metaphors of fishhooks and bait as a means of 'testing' the water (for the corresponding fish). 20 references to this can already be read in 1862 in Winnefeld, Die Philosophie Empedocles, who speaks of the fact that “the Empedokleische tradition of a golden age stands outside of all scientific context” and that the Cybeles ['Queen Aphrodite'] is worshiped among people, not how gods are worshiped in darker times, but “with statues, paintings and bloodless offerings of myrrh, frankincense and honey; the altars were not yet stained with sacrificial blood and the flesh of the animals was an abomination to people. ”p. 54. But in the first of the three books, beginning with the beginning, there is once again Lukian's dialogues with the gods and the dead with their reference to Charon and Hermes to think. 21 This is not least the case because the ancient Greek culture, with all its fears with regard to the shedding of blood, sees greater problems here than is otherwise the case in antiquity: blood is shed from the will out of which it is is potted, made dependent: d. In other words, until the slaughter one needed not only the practice “with a prayer” [Empedokles, Katharmoi, DK 137; Kirk-Raven-Schofield 415], but also a very specific ritual. 3. Nietzsche's Lukian. Incipit Parödia 82 In Lukian's The Fisherman or the Risen One (who parody the fate of his own parodies in the face of the philosophies he has presented as 'for sale') we find details about the 'fishing rod': it is baited, in accordance with its function as a 'test' for the nature and quality of the philosopher, whether he is 'true' or not - and mostly he is not - before the judicial seat of Philosophia [Φιλοσοφία] and truth [Ἀλήθεια] itself; but we also find essential information about the revival of Diogenes of Sinope, who is here exposed as the philosopher of the philosophers. Lucian's comparison of the 'test' for the philosophical pretender is instructive, especially in a Zarathustra context: the truth. If you like it, we want to pass it on to Freymund: he has proven himself to be a good, well-meaning man and your sincere admirer, o philosophy. In the company of the transfer he should make the acquaintance of all who bear the name of the philosopher. Whoever tries himself out to him as a true disciple of wisdom, he should wreath with an olive branch and lead him into the Prytaneum. But wherever he comes across one of these hopeless mouth philosophers, of whom there are only too many, he should tear his coat off his body, shave his beard off his skin with sheep's scissors, and stick a mark on the forehead or burn it between the eyebrows The branding iron is said to have the shape of a fox or a monkey. Philosophy. Excellent, dear truth! And the test, Freymund, is like that which the eagles put on with their young in the sun: but instead of making them look like these against the light, hold gold, prestige and lust before their eyes; and whoever you look over it and see not being attracted by the sight, that’s the one you have to crown with the olive branch. But if you stare at those things with your eyes and move your hands towards the gold, take hold of them and have their beard shaved off and the branding applied.22 22 Lukian, “The Fisherman or the Resurrected” in: Lukians Werke, vol 3, pp. 401– 402. Lukian von Samosata 83 The problem with those who call themselves philosophers is, in fact, that, although they “despise confessions of wealth and appearance”, they “for the transmission” of the teachings always take sums of money: But now you can see how they teach these teachings only for money, how they pay their respects to the rich, how they snap for gold and silver, how they are more vicious than young dogs, more fearful than rabbits, more flattering than them Monkeys, hornier than the donkeys, more thieving than the cats, and more wrangling than the roosters. That is why they make themselves a mockery when they start dealing with themselves, push each other away with their elbows at the doors of the rich, and go to large parties and feasts, where they accuse the landlord with the most vile flattery, and at the same time full of insubordinate gluttony Overfill it in the most indecent way, have tasteless conversations under frequent mugs that do not harmonize well with your philosophy, and not even keep the wine to yourself. The laypeople who are present at the feast, of course, laugh and despise a philosophy that brings up such ugly fruits.23 With regard to the fact that the truth is from the alleged accuser of philosophy (nota bene, once again, in the presence of the personifications of the Philosophy and truth itself and in addition to that of Freimundes, Παρρησιάδης) should be separated from the error, we read Lukian's dialogical remarks about the test procedure: Freymund Very easy, if only the priestess gave me the fishing line there and the hook, which the fisherman from the Piraeus has donated, wants to borrow for a few moments. Priestess. Here you have it, and the rod to go with it. Freymund I also ask you for a pair of dried figs and a piece of gold.24 The first fish to be caught before the eyes of the 'risen' judge Diogenes is suddenly the 'Salmo Cyniscus' “a sea dog! - Hercules, what the teeth! - But let's take out the fish hook with the bait first. Behold! the hook is empty! He already has the fig and the piece of gold in his stomach. ”25 He is quickly followed by a Platonist, a false Aristotle, and many others - with all“ fish ”23 Ibid., Pp. 393–394. 24 Ibid., Pp. 367-407. 25 Ibid., Pp. 227-228. 3. Nietzsche's Lukian. Incipit Parödia 84 are summarily judged as "poor" by the philosophers themselves, who had originally returned from the afterlife to give Lucian a thorough victory; nevertheless, in the end, he found that his denunciations were perfectly suited to the philosophers and philosophizing on their behalf. When Nietzsche's Zarathustra then speaks of the “best bait”, he means that “bait that hunters and fishers need”, and he refers to “- a sea full of colorful fish and crabs” in a similarly classic mode of wealth “after whom the gods would also like to turn into fishermen and net casters: the world is so rich in wondrous things, big and small! ”(Z IV, Das Honig offering) But now we hear the language of Lucian, strikingly enough Almost literally as well as the language of classical literature including the classical 'gods', with a touch of the New Testament having its own parodying paradoxes: Nietzsche's mocking-parodistic mindset mixes with the reference to his own search for others to whom he speaks could: according to readers: especially the human world, the human sea - after that I now cast out my golden fishing rod and say: open up, you human abyss! Open up and throw me your fish and glitter crabs! With my best bait I bait the strangest human fish today! (Ibid.) Nietzsche mentions the fishing rod again later when we read in Ecce Homo (on Beyond Good and Evil): “From then on, all my writings are fishhooks:“ Perhaps I understand myself as well as someone who goes fishing ? ”(EH: JGB, § 1) Here is Nietzsche's point that he“ caught nothing, ”not because of his (lack of) writing skills, but because there is a lack of fish.26 Nietzsche himself is careful to emphasize precisely this point: less by direct assertion of the allusion than by doxographic tradition and example. Hence his allusion to the ancient satirists (including Menippus of Gadara, whose works are lost and only through the fragments and references 26 See for example the first chapter on Nietzsche's style in Babich, “One God's Happiness, Full of Power and Love.” Lucian of Samosata 85 are still known by Lukian) 27 as "the mocking Luciane of antiquity" (GT § 8): satirists faute de mieux, who reach for discolored and withered "flowers" that have long been scattered to the wind. This grasping is at the same time the “last gleam” of what the origin or the birth of the Dionysian spirit in the musical tragedy (GT §10) had been. In Lukian's day tragedy, according to Nietzsche, has long since perished by its own hands. Although commentators tend to ignore this emphasis almost entirely: namely that, like the 'great Pan', 28 the tragedy itself is dead, Nietzsche's crux of the transition is the translation of the spoken or sung word into the written text . It was precisely this accent that had inspired Nietzsche's inaugural lecture in Basel on the famous Homeric question, as well as his public lectures on music and tragedy in Basel.29 It might seem as if we were on completely different ground when we asked 'who' Nietzsche's Zarathustra is. Because then we think of the Persians and especially not of the Greeks. But there is, very important for philologists, at least in Nietzsche's time, the Syrian Lukian. In this sense, Nietzsche's Zarathustra is first and foremost a 'loudspeaker', a 'resonance chamber', and above all we should remember that the narrative of Zarathustra is a story of decline or decline. The superman Zarathustra comes to teach, like Empedocles, no more than a mortal, he is glorified and immortal. And the superman is also and at the same time, as Nietzsche's Zarathustra says, the superman, entirely in the image of Lukian's superman, the tyrant before his own decline. Who is Nietzsche's Empedocles? Nietzsche often mentions Empedocles in syncretistic connection with other names.30 It is therefore important to add that the same syncretical 27 Cf. in each case Nietzsche's evocation of the importance of satire for his own style. EH, What I owe to the ancients, § 1. 28 “‘ The great Pan is dead ‘” KSA 7, p. 124. 29 See chap. 10 below. 30 See Babich, “One God's Happiness, Full of Power and Love”, p. 128 ff. 3. Nietzsche's Lukian. Incipit Parödia 86 Cretism is part of the general circumstances of the tradition of the lives of the pre-Platonic philosophers; From here Nietzsche also reads Diogenes Laertios' life and opinions of famous philosophers [Βίοι και γνώμαι των εν φιλοσοφία ευδοκιμησάντων] .31 In the spirit of an at the same time phenomenological philology and composition, Nietzsche follows the interweaving of ancient authors and practices The weaknesses of such a 'practice' of tradition highlighted. For while Empedocles is usually associated with Pythagoras (or is placed in line with Parmenides, as Peter Kingsley emphatically asserts), 32 Nietzsche opts for Empedocles to be associated with both Heraclitus (KSA 7, p. 118) and Anaxagoras can be read in his remarks on The Pre-Platonic Philosophers from the years 1869–1872.33 Together with Anaximander, who for his part is given a place of honor for his tragic appeal in an ethical context in Nietzsche's The Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (a work, in which Empedocles is not mentioned at all), this separates the Eleates Empedocles and Heraclitus “as the tragic philosophers” (KSA 7, p. 118), in that Heraclitus and Empedocles in one breath with Spinoza and Goethe as his forerunners names (KSA 11, p. 134). In connection with Plato and Pythagoras Nietzsche also speaks of Heraclitus and Empedocles as idealists, defining this term as follows: "[d] he [d] he ̉ ̉α̉νὴρ θεωρετκός as enlightener and dissolver of nature and instinct." (KSA 7, P. 85). Almost a year later Nietzsche appealed to Heraklit to shed light on the “competition [...] The world is a game” (KSA 7, p. 399), and to clarify these connections he adds: “The philosopher and women “(Ibid.). By following Diogenes Laertios, Nietzsche also tells us that the rhetoric was born ('came about') with Empedocles: 31 Cf. Gigantes “Gli Studi di Nietzsche su Diogene Laerzio” and Barnes, “Nietzsche and Diogenes Laertius”. 32 Diogenes Laërtios supports both assertions. See Lives VIII. 54 and 56. 33 Nietzsche, Lecture Notes (WS 1871/72 - WS 1874/75), KGW II / 4 ,, pp. 209–363. The comparison between Empedocles and Anaxagoras is, as O'Brien says, not specific to Nietzsche: "The Relation of Anaxagoras and Empedocles" as well as Kingsley "Notes on Air".Among those who have written about Nietzsche and Empedocles, see in particular Dixsaut, “L’Empèdocle di Nietzsche” as well as Ramnoux, “Les fragments d’un 'Empèdocle’ de Fr. Nietzsche ”. See also the authors who are quoted below. Who is Nietzsche's Empedocles? 87 as Aristotle says, who says of him πρωτον ‘ρητοικὴ, κεκινηκέ ναι in the dialogue Sophist, cf. La. VIII 57 Sixth Emp. VII 6. Gorgias learns from him (KGW II4, p. 319). In the register of his estate it becomes clear that for Nietzsche Empedocles in connection with the topoi “Agonale Natur. The rhetor ”stands (KSA 7, p. 399) Since he is an“ in between ”, an“ edge ”or a“ border figure ”, it is very difficult to define and locate Empedocles more precisely: he remains“ floating ”, like Nietzsche says, “between doctor and magician, between poet and rhetorician, between God and man, between scientist and artist, between statesman and priest, between Pythagoras and Democritus; he is the most colorful figure of older philosophy: with him the age of myth, tragedy, orgiasm separates, but at the same time the modern Greek appears in him as a democratic statesman, orator, enlightener, allegorist, scientific. Human. The two ages wrestle in him, he is the thoroughly agonal human being (KGW II4, p. 328). With this description Nietzsche could well have spoken of himself or at least of his 'son' Zarathustra. But such a description makes it even more remarkable that Empedocles, whom Nietzsche calls this: "[he] is the tragic philosopher, the contemporary of Aeschylos" (KGW II4, p. 321), only appears so rarely in his published work - like that as we have already had reason to notice its absence in Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. For Nietzsche, Empedocles embodies the paradigmatic figure of the philosopher. Therefore Nietzsche connects Empedocles with Aeschylus and thus with the tragic and only secondarily and from here with the pessimism (which concretely against Schopenhauer as 'Active' rather than being specified as quietistic). It is this reflection on the nature and meaning of the 'tragic' that continues to evoke philosophical analysis. To this day, however, the majority of these analyzes tend to follow Hegel's concept of the tragic rather than that of Nietzsche; 34 a focus on Hegel is also characteristic of those who answer the question from 34 this although both Schmidt, On Germans and Other Greeks as well as Fóti, Epochal Discordance focus on this specific topic, although both authors vote not to concentrate on Nietzsche, perhaps in favor of Hegel, an emphasis which unfortunately is still widely used. 3. Nietzsche's Lukian. Incipit Parödia 88 raise Heidegger's perspective, but Reiner Schürmann is a notable exception. Nietzsche's effort to tie in with Holderlin's preoccupation with Empedocles revolves around the same philosophical question about the nature of the tragic. Therefore, for Nietzsche, “Empedocles [...] is the pure tragic person”, with which he explains his “jump into the aetna - drive for knowledge!” (KSA 7, p. 118). The declaration of Empedocles ’death (was it suicide, was it an attempt at metamorphosis, real or apparent?) Has kept scholars busy for two and a half millennia. Nietzsche therefore writes: Empedocles “longed for art and only found knowledge. But knowledge makes fists ”(ibid.). In following Holderlin between his Hyperion or the hermit in Greece and the death of Empedocles, 35 Nietzsche exposes the following triad, a triad that, as one could rightly say, resonates through his entire work: “The tragic work of art. / The tragic man. / The tragic state ”. (KSA 7, p. 119). is right. Such a discussion about Nietzsche and Holderlin and, as a consequence, the specific concept of tragedy and philosophy is still largely unknown. The author of this text has so far made several contributions to such an investigation, without in any case claiming that she has worked out more than a very first beginning. 35 Hölderlin composed his three sketches between 1797 and 1800 and Nietzsche may have been familiar with them since they were first published in 1846. In agreement with Haase, Gerhardt argues that the Empedocles sketches are direct precursors to Zarathustra. On this in Gerhardt's Friedrich Nietzsche, see especially p. 49, p. 393. Who is Nietzsche's Empedocles? 89