What was White Croatia

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Izvorni znanstveni članak

White Croatians in Banal Croatia and parts of Croatia, which are made up of counties

Ivan Mužić ; HR, Split, Čiovska 2

Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (698 KB)st. 265-298preuzimanja: 1,586 *citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Mužić, I. (2010). Bijeli Hrvati u banskoj Hrvatskoj i županijska Hrvatska. Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III (37), 265-298. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/81177
MLA 8th Edition
Mužić, Ivan. "Bijeli Hrvati u banskoj Hrvatskoj i županijska Hrvatska." Starohrvatska prosvjeta, vol. III, br. 37, 2010, str. 265-298. https://hrcak.srce.hr/81177. Citirano 05/19/2021.
Chicago 17th Edition
Mužić, Ivan. "Bijeli Hrvati u banskoj Hrvatskoj i županijska Hrvatska." Starohrvatska prosvjeta III, br. 37 (2010): 265-298. https://hrcak.srce.hr/81177
Mužić, I. (2010). 'Bijeli Hrvati u banskoj Hrvatskoj i županijska Hrvatska', Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III (37), str. 265-298. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/81177 (Date pristupa: May 19, 2021.)
Mužić I. Bijeli Hrvati u banskoj Hrvatskoj i županijska Hrvatska. Starohrvatska prosvjeta [Internet]. 2010 [pristupljeno 05/19/2021.]; III (37): 265-298. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/81177
I. Mužić, "Bijeli Hrvati u banskoj Hrvatskoj i županijska Hrvatska", Starohrvatska prosvjeta, vol. III, br. 37, str. 265-298, 2010. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/81177. [Citirano: May 19, 2021.]

In the literature so far, the prevailing view is that White Croatia mentioned in the De administrando imperio work is in Northern Europe. Despite numerous considerations in this regard, it has not yet been proven that a White Croatia ever existed in the north of Europe. In particular, there is no evidence that could confirm its continuous existence from the middle of the 7th to the middle of the 10th century, but also evidence that the Croats called themselves White Croats in the area of ​​today's Czech Republic, Poland and the Ukraine. If there were no White Croats in these areas, then they could not settle in Dalmatia at the end of the 8th or beginning of the 9th century. Even in Franconian sources there is no evidence of such immigration by Croatians. To regard this possibility as credible also means to ignore other existing written sources about the immigration of Croatians to the Balkans. The Nestor Chronicle mentions the White Croats only in the Balkans. According to the works of Libellus Gothorum and Historia Salonitana, the Croatians settled in the Liburnian territory of the later areas of Lika, Krbava and Gacka, at the latest by the time of Totila, i.e. in the middle of the 6th century, where they settled permanently. The Croatians initially called themselves Croats only in the banal Croatia of Presbyter Diocleas. King Budimir used the name White Croats in the second half of the 9th century. Thomas Archdeacon did not mention any White Croats in his work, but he placed the Croats who, in his opinion, immigrated in the middle of the 6th century into the same territory that the Croatian Chronicle calls White Croatia. Some authors tried to bring the Croats into direct relationship with Avar ethnic elements. In none of the three historical sources, however, are the Croats associated with the Avars through Croatian immigration. Both Libellus Gothorum and Historia Salonitana equate the Croats with the Goths (Goths - slaves). In two chapters of the writing De Keywords: Old or White Croatia, White Croatians, Banal Croatia, Avars, Dalmatia, Trpimir, Budimir administrando imperio, the war between Croats and Avars is mentioned. The third chapter of the Croatian version of the Libellus Gothorum shows that during Bladin's reign around the middle of the 7th century a large number of Avaro slaves lived in the neighboring provinces. It also says that Bladin made peace with them and recognized the Avar sovereignty in agreement with the delivery of tribute. From the continuation of the story in the following chapters of Libellus Gothorum it can be concluded that the up to then Gothic-Slavinian dynasty was replaced by new Avaro-Slavic rulers, against whom the White Croatians organized rebellions from their bank. The medieval territory of northern Dalmatia, bordered by the Zrmanja and Krka rivers, and that of central Dalmatia, bordered by the Krka and Cetina rivers, as well as the areas of Knin and Drniš and neighboring regions (Livno, Glamoč) are referred to in literature as Dalmatian Croatia. This area is basically identical to the Porphyrogennetos counties. In this part of Croatia, which is divided into counties, Croats settled as Frankish allies in the war against the Avars at the end of the 8th and beginning of the 9th centuries. Only since then have there been old Croatian graves in this area. Banal Croatia comprised the medieval areas of Gacka, Krbava and Lika. There are no written sources, archaeological finds or toponyms that can prove that the Avars ever settled this region. Immediately after the Croatian-Franconian War, the former large state named in the Libellus Gothorum was restored under the Croatian leadership of King Trpimir. Gottschalk lived at his royal court and therefore also knew that Trpimir was not only king of the Croats. He rightly called him “King of the Slavinists”. At that time the Croats, but also all previous Gothic-Slavic and Avaro-Slavic immigrants in the territory of Roman Dalmatia were called Skla-White Croats in Banal Croatia and parts of Croatia, which consist of counties In memory of Nada Klaić Starohrvatska prosvjeta III. serija - svezak 37/2010. 298 called vinier. Over time, they merged with the local residents and settled in the Trpimir Regnum. From the Franconian-Croatian occupation of the Dalmatia County at the beginning of the 9th century until the time of the Croatian rule of Trpimir, the Christianization of part of the immigrant Croats and a large number of the local population who lived outside the coastal cities and who settled Dalma (tiner ) called. The existence of a strong land army and a large navy at the time of Trpimir was only possible in a state that was far larger than banal Croatia. Sources relating to Croatian-Bulgarian relations and wars suggest that a large state existed at that time, which included the Croatians and which bordered Bulgaria. The fact that Trpimir had a great master is evidenced by his victorious campaigns against the Byzantine state. The Bulgarian ruler Boris Michael (852–889) also attacked the Croats. But he was eventually forced to make peace with them. Since the domination of Domagoj, the Croats have been ruled only by Banen. According to the interpretation of written sources, the territory of individual banks could only be part of a larger unit that was under royal sovereignty. From the ninth chapter of the Croatian Chronicle one can conclude that the state was shaken by major religious conflicts before Budimir’s rule. This is also proven by the letter from Pope Stephen VI. to the Archbishop Theodosius of Split from the year 887/888, in which the Pope calls for the rebuilding of the churches that were “destroyed by barbaric fury”. According to the Libellus Gothorum, King Budimir divided the great state in 885 or 886. The royal power in this possible great state became more and more nominal in the sense that the Croatian Bane also became the actual rulers of their territories.

Ključne riječi
Old or White Croatia; White croats; Banal Croatia; Avars; Dalmatia; Trpimir; Budimir

Hrčak ID: 81177





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