What is good and bad blood pressure

Recognize and treat fluctuations in blood pressure

Status: 06/17/2019 1:52 p.m. | archive
The causes of high blood pressure are diverse: For example, a genetic predisposition, poor diet or long-term stress are possible.

Especially in stressful moments, many people are literally "under pressure". When things get hectic, the body is put on alert: the heart beats faster, the small blood vessels become narrower and the blood flows through the veins at increased pressure. The muscles are supplied with more blood and better supplied with oxygen. A sophisticated system of hormones, vascular and nerve actions controls our blood pressure and adapts it to the circumstances. When we get excited or exert ourselves, the sympathetic nervous system kicks in as part of the autonomic nervous system and causes blood pressure to skyrocket. When the patient is resting, the parasympathetic nervous system takes over, the heart beats more slowly, the blood vessels widen, and blood pressure drops again.

When the blood pressure is persistently high

Ideally, our body can regulate blood pressure in such a way that we are well supplied in every situation, but many people have permanently high blood pressure (hypertension). High blood pressure is present when the values ​​measured by the doctor on different days are 140 to 90 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or more. For self-measurement at home, the limit values ​​are slightly lower (135 to 85 mmHg). Both values ​​do not have to be increased. Most often the upper value is increased. It is important to measure on both arms.

Chat Log: Hypertension

Dangerous high blood pressure often goes undetected for a long time. It can damage the heart, kidneys and nerves. Prof. Peter Radke answered questions on the subject in the visit chat. more

High blood pressure can have these causes

Many factors play a role in the development of so-called primary high blood pressure: genetic predisposition, poor diet, smoking, obesity, lack of exercise and long-term stress.

If the high pressure is triggered by special causes, doctors speak of secondary hypertension. There are certain diseases that result in high blood pressure. These include kidney diseases, pauses in breathing during sleep (sleep apnea) and diseases of the adrenal gland (hormone-producing tumors, hyperaldosteronism, Conn syndrome).

Reasons for fluctuating blood pressure:

  • Vegetative type: Blood pressure is actually well adjusted, but stress, alcohol, nicotine, licorice or painkillers often lead to derailments.
  • Non-compliance type: unreliable use of medication, poor blood pressure control or inadequate basic measures have a similar effect.
  • Secondary hypertension: Causes such as sleep apnea, hormone-forming tumors, kidney diseases or hyperaldosteronism have been overlooked and not treated and repeatedly lead to blood pressure derailments.

What Makes High Blood Pressure So Dangerous?

A permanently high blood pressure is particularly dangerous because of its secondary diseases. The constant pressure can lead to a weak heart and harden the vessel walls, which causes the blood pressure to rise even further. Deposits can form in the narrowed vessels (arteriosclerosis), in the worst case this can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

Dosing the medication is not always easy

To prevent these serious illnesses, high blood pressure is usually treated with antihypertensive drugs. However, especially in people who suffer from high blood pressure caused by stress, there can be strong fluctuations in pressure, which make it difficult to dose the medication. For example, these patients suffer from high blood pressure during the week and at work, but can relax better on weekends or on vacation. On these days, the dosage of the medication may be too high and the blood pressure will be lowered too much. The result: Symptoms such as fatigue and tiredness, which are typical of low blood pressure, occur.

With these patients in particular, it is important that the cause of the high blood pressure is found out together with the attending physician. The patient has to learn to understand his blood pressure and to recognize when and in which situations the blood pressure becomes higher or lower. Together with the doctor, a dosage concept is then created that adapts to the respective life situation. The dosage of the medication should always be done in consultation with the doctor and never be done on your own, this can be dangerous.

Recognize fluctuations

A 24-hour blood pressure measurement can help identify the fluctuations. It also makes sense if the patient regularly measures their blood pressure at home and keeps a diary that the doctor can evaluate. The independently recorded values ​​can give a good indication of how the blood pressure changes in certain situations.

In high blood pressure therapy, it is also important to raise awareness of how blood pressure can be permanently reduced or at least influenced by changing lifestyle habits. This includes a balanced diet, avoidance of alcohol and nicotine as well as exercise, a regular day-night rhythm and relaxation phases. One of the most effective measures to lower blood pressure is weight reduction: for every kilogram of body weight lost, the upper blood pressure value drops by about one mmHg.

Blood pressure: which value is optimal?

If there is a high risk of cardiovascular disease, US scientists recommend a systolic blood pressure of no more than 120 mmHg. But the recommendation is controversial. more

Experts on the subject

Prof. Dr. Peter W. Radke, internist, cardiologist, intensive care physician
Internal Medicine Clinic - Cardiology
Schön Klinik Neustadt SE & Co. KG
At Kiebitzberg 10
23730 Neustadt
www.schoen-klinik.de

Prof. Dr. Joachim Schrader, Chief Physician and Medical Director
Center for Hypertension
St. Josefs-Hospital Cloppenburg gGmbH
Krankenhausstrasse 13
49661 Cloppenburg
www.josefshospital-cloppenburg.de/

Dr. Robin Kettner
General practitioner group and acupuncture practice Obereider
Hebbelstrasse 3
24768 Rendsburg
www.praxis-obereider.de

additional Information
German Hypertension League e.V. DHL - German Hypertension Society
Berliner Strasse 46
69120 Heidelberg
(06221) 58 85 55 (Mon-Fri 9 am-5pm)
www.hochdruckliga.de
Prevention magazine "Druckpunkt" (appears quarterly)

This topic in the program:

Visit | 06/18/2019 | 8:15 pm