What types of psychology are there


Psychotherapists offer various forms of psychotherapy. In the following overview you can read how the respective psychotherapy works and when it makes sense.

Behavior therapy

Behavioral therapy is one of the most common types of psychotherapy. Therapists focus on concrete Disorders of thinking, feeling and acting at. The form of therapy assumes that people have learned every behavior and thought pattern - and can therefore change them. You will get used to it by means of specific exercises new behavior for example, a more positive mindset in exam situations. Behavioral therapy is useful for many different mental illnesses, including anxiety disorders, phobias, depression, eating disorders, addictions, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Couples therapy

Couples therapy is advisable if Problems in the relationship persist. However, these are mostly social and not psychological conflicts. The term "couples therapist" is not protected by law. This means that the therapist does not need to complete any specific training in order to offer counseling. Couples therapy is not officially a psychotherapy.

Nevertheless, couples therapy can be helpful if those affected cannot resolve the conflicts in their marriage or relationship on their own. The therapist will investigate what causes are behind the problems and work with the couple concrete solutions work.


Psychoanalysis can be offered by therapists who have completed additional training in this area. The method works Sigmund Freud back. The neurologist was of the opinion that mental illness was caused by Childhood conflicts arise that the person concerned has not processed correctly. The job of the psychoanalyst is to interpret the narratives of the person concerned and to recognize these conflicts.

Psychoanalysis is more open than the other psychotherapeutic procedures that focus on a specific problem. The psychoanalyst considered all conflicts. In addition, the patient does not sit across from the therapist, but takes a seat on a lounger or sofa. The person affected should be able to tell and associate more freely.

In addition, psychoanalysis takes place more frequently than ordinary psychotherapies: the patients have up to five appointments per week. Psychoanalysis can take several years. The method is therefore useful for those affected whose symptoms have persisted for a long time and require a more detailed analysis, for example in the case of personality disorders.

Gestalt therapy

Gestalt therapy is a form of psychotherapy that affects the human being as a whole and versatile "shape" looks at. With the method, the person concerned recognizes which emotions are obstructive for him in his life and in the relationship with his fellow human beings, such as self-doubt, fears or anger. By Conversations and concrete actions, for example role plays and experiments, you will get to know new attitudes and feelings. In Gestalt therapy, the therapist appears less as an expert, but more as a Companion and supporter on.

Music therapy

Music therapy is suitable for patients who find it difficult to convey their feelings and thoughts verbally through words. In this form of psychotherapy, the person concerned expresses himself through music instead. By hearing different sounds, he learns his Recognize emotions. When playing instruments, he can express his feelings and needs in the form of different rhythms, while the music has an effect relaxing and helps relieve stress.

Psychotherapy based on depth psychology

This type of psychotherapy is related to psychoanalysis. Therapists also look for unprocessed experiences in the past - mostly childhood. Instead of looking at all conflicts, however, the method focuses on one central conflict. Through the insights from psychotherapy, therapist and patient can work together Initiate change in the present.

In contrast to psychoanalysis, psychotherapy based on depth psychology takes place sitting down and only once or twice a week. The method is useful for several clinical pictures, including depression, anxiety disorders and compulsions.

Analytical psychotherapy

Analytical psychotherapy is also similar to psychoanalysis. The therapist searches for Childhood conflicts, the complaints trigger in the present. The patient also takes a seat on a couch.

However, analytical psychotherapy is more structured than psychoanalysis. Therapist and patient join in before the sessions clear goal determine which they want to achieve through therapy. In addition, the therapy takes place at longer intervals - an average of two times a week. Analytical psychotherapy is useful for various complaints, including fears, compulsions or sleep disorders.

Systemic psychotherapy

In systemic therapy or systemic psychotherapy, the therapist sees his patient as a social being. It refers not only to himself but also to his environment - for example on his partner, his family and friends. With this form of therapy, the psychotherapist tries to fix the error, for example in the System family to find. He identifies behavior and communication patterns that make the patient sick. Thereafter, the therapist and the person affected work together concrete proposed solutions.

Conversational psychotherapy

Talk therapy or talk psychotherapy goes back to the psychologist Carl Rogers. He believed that everyone strives to develop further. According to Rogers, however, he can't do that if he does disagreements discovered in oneself - for example, when a person thinks they are brave but is afraid of challenges. These discrepancies would lead to mental illnesses such as depression or addictions.

Discussion psychotherapy starts with these theses. The therapist does not focus on the psychological symptoms, but rather helps the patient to accept yourself and develop yourself. For this type of psychotherapy it is especially important that the therapist is compassionate and understanding.

Psychotherapy for children

Psychotherapy can also be useful for children and adolescents - for example, if the child is persistent psychological problems at school, with family or friends. The psychotherapist will first check whether therapy is necessary. In some cases, the problem can be solved by changing schools, giving parenting advice or talking to the youth welfare office.

If the therapist considers psychotherapy to be useful, he puts it together with the child and the parents concrete goals fixed - for example, to put aside test anxiety. Usually the meetings take place every one to two weeks to work on the goals. It is important that the therapist does the sessions Age-appropriate designed. For younger children, for example, playing and painting are important elements in expressing thoughts and feelings. The therapist also plans to meet the parents at regular intervals to discuss successes and further steps.