Friedrich Nietzsche was a stoic

"He was basically the actual writer, while I was just the author." Friedrich Nietzsche's poetology of authorship as a paradigm of French poststructuralism (Roland Barthes, Gilles Deleuze, Michel Foucault)

Authorship: Positions and Revisions pp 80-106 | Cite as

Part of the German Symposia Reports book series (GERMSYMP)

Summary

Friedrich Nietzsche is one of those writers who have reflected on their status as an author throughout their lives. Nietzsche's conceptualization of one's own authorship1 began in the late summer of 1858 with the autobiographical attempt by the almost fourteen-year-old to retrospectively distinguish three phases in the genesis of his youth poems, of which he chronologically chronicles 46: the first phase, which emerged from the grandeur of "natural scenes" without any precedents, but because of the awkwardness Poems marked by ›linguistic hardships‹, which gives way to the second, subsequently abhorred phase, in which the missing craft of rhyme and measure was compensated for by an excess of “decorated and radiant language” before the adolescent poet tried in the third phase, “ connect the first and the second d. H. Unite loveliness with strength «.2 Thirty years later, Nietzsche's conceptualization of his own authorship tends to make the autobiographical attempt to give the corpus of his writings the legislative appearance of a second, supposedly replacing and hysterical decalogue of the entire epoch by retrospectively examining the genesis of his books as both compelling and disastrous Inscribes the teleology of their number ten,3 to its end: »I have now told myself with a cynicism that will become world historical: the book is called 'Ecce homo' and is an assassination attempt without the slightest consideration for the crucified […].

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notes

  1. In principle, but from the limited perspective of Nietzsche's later autobiography, see Kittler, Friedrich: How to do away with what one speaks of: The author of ›Ecce homo‹ «, in: Literary magazine No. 12 (May 1980), special volume "Nietzsche", pp. 153-178, Google Scholar
  2. and Kleinschmidt, Erich: »Absent Presence. Borderline positions of authorship in Friedrich Nietzsche's ›Ecce homo‹ «, in: Weimar contributions. Journal for literary studies, aesthetics and cultural studies 46th Jg. (2000), Heft 2, pp 165-179; Google Scholar
  3. in connection with the subject of Nietzsche's conceptualization of authorship as a paradigm of French (post) structuralism, especially Detering, Heinrich: »Die Tode Nietzsche. On the Antitheological Theology of Postmodernism ", in: Mercury. German magazine for European thinking 52nd year, issue 594/595 (September / October 1998), pp. 876-889.Google Scholar
  4. Nietzsche, Friedrich: »Out of my life. - / from / F. W. Nietzsche./I./ The youth years. - / 1844–1858 "(" written from 18 Aug [ust] to 1 September 1858 "), in: ders., Youth publications 1854–1861, published by Hans Joachim Mette, Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag 1994Google Scholar
  5. (= Photomechanical reprint of the edition: Friedrich Nietzsche, Works and letters. Historically critical complete edition, Munich: CH Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung 1933–1940 [= BAW], 5 vol., Vol. 1), pp. 1–32, especially p. 11, pp. 15–16 and p. 27–30.Google Scholar
  6. Nietzsche's letters are quoted from Friedrich Nietzsche, All letters. Critical study edition in 8 volumes, edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari, Munich / Berlin-New York: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag / Walter de Gruyter 1986 (= KSB), here KSB 7, no. 730, pp. 224–226, p. 226. Part of this teleologization is the conversion of the penultimate and the last of the ten chapters on Nietzsche's writings in Ecce homo. Cf. Groddeck, Wolfram: »› The Birth of Tragedy ‹in› Ecce homo ‹. Notes on a structural reading of Nietzsche's ›Ecce homo‹ «, in: Nietzsche studies. International yearbook for Nietzsche research 13 (1984), pp. 325–331, p. 329: »In the sequence of self-interpretations, the closing position of› Der Fall Wagner ‹is the only violation of the chronology of the work's genesis, because this writing is a few months before› Götzen-Twilight ‹Originated and also appeared earlier. I do not consider the change in the series of self-interpretations to be accidental, because the title of the last chapter is exposed in terms of composition; Google Scholar
  7. Nietzsche to Georg Brandes in Copenhagen, Torino, via Carlo Alberto 6, III / November 20, 1888, KSB 8, No. 1151, pp. 482–483, p. 482. On the terminological echoes of Nietzsche's in the In the 1980s, hysteria research by the Parisian Salpêtrière, which was intensively received, see, for example, Lampl, Hans-Erich: “Ex oblivione: Das Féré-Palimpsest. Notes on the relationship between Friedrich Nietzsche and Charles Féré (1857–1907) «, in: Nietzsche studies. International yearbook for Nietzsche research 15 (1986), pp. 225-264. Google Scholar
  8. Unless otherwise stated, Nietzsche's writings are quoted from Nietzsche, Friedrich: Critical study edition in 15 volumes, edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari, Munich / Berlin / New York: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag / Walter de Gruyter 1980 (= KSA), here KSA 6, pp. 298–301, p. 298: EH, "Why I write such good books 1". To dissolve the symbols used: Google Scholar
  9. This distinction is known to be one of the most important steps on Jacques Lacan's "return to Freud". Cf. Lacan, Jacques: "Subversion of the subject and dialectic of desire in the Freudian unconscious" (1960, 1966), translated from the French by Chantal Creusot and Norbert Haas, in: ders., Writings II, selected and edited by Norbert Haas, Olten-Freiburg / Br .: Walter-Verlag 1975, pp. 165-204, especially p. 174ff. Nietzsche already gave clues to Lacan's equations "me connaître" and "méconnaître": "I am amazed every day: I don't know myself!" (KSA 9, p. 325: 7 [39], end of 1880) .Google Scholar
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  12. Kalb, Christof has these two axes, language criticism and physiological criticism: Disintegration. Studies on Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy of body and language, Frankfurt / M .: Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Verlag 2000 (= suhrkamp paperback science 1468), related to each other under the sign of "self-education." Google Scholar
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  15. For the latest research on Nietzsche's language criticism in his early work, see the thorough and bibliographically saturated study by Hödl, Hans Gerald: Nietzsche's early criticism of language. Readings on "About Truth and Lies in the Extra-Moral Sense" (1873), Vienna: WUV-Universitätsverlag 1997.Google Scholar
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  27. Diogenes Laertius, Lives and opinions of famous philosophers (1475, 1533), Google Scholar
  28. Translated from the Greek by Otto Apelt, Hamburg: Felix Meiner 1967 (2nd edition), p. 314, VI ​​40. Cf. also Steinmann, Kurt: "Vorwort", in: Diogenes Laertios, The life of Diogenes of Sinope (1475, 1533), Google Scholar
  29. This is a failure of the otherwise very readable monograph by Nehemas, Alexander: Nietzsche: Life as Literature (1985), translated from English by Brigitte Flickinger, Göttingen: Steidl Verlag 1991.Google Scholar
  30. Cf. in principle the comprehensive study by Thuringia, Hubert: History of memory. Friedrich Nietzsche and the 19th Century, Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag 2001, on the relationship between memory, "I" and the physiological studies on consciousness formation and memory disorders, above all by Théodule Ribot, Hermann Ebbinghaus and Ewald Hering, in the vicinity of which Nietzsche's own reflections move, especially p. 311–343, “Body happening: transcending history (Théodule Ribot, Ewald Hering).” Google Scholar
  31. more easily accessible in: Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph: Writings and letters in six volumes, published by Wolfgang Promies, Munich / Vienna: Carl Hanser Verlag 1971, Volume II: Sudel books II, material booklets, diaries, Pp. 197-198, HII 146 after the Promies Count. Google Scholar
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  34. Cf. Most, Glenn and Fries, Thomas: "The Sources of Nietzsche's Rhetoric Lecture", in: Kopperschmidt, Josef and Schanze, Helmut (ed.), Nietzsche or "Language is rhetoric", Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag 1994 (= CHARACTERS 1), pp. 17–38 and pp. 251–258, p. 35. Google Scholar
  35. Sommer, Andreas Urs: »The benefits and disadvantages of critical source research. Some thoughts on the Nietzsche case «, in: Nietzsche studies. International yearbook for Nietzsche research 29 (2000), pp. 302-316, p. 313. Google Scholar
  36. Cf. Fuchs, Johannes: "Friedrich Nietzsche's Eye Diseases", in: Munich Medical Weekly 120: 631-634, 633 (1978); Google Scholar
  37. Cf. Ludwig, Otto: "History of Writing", in: Günther, Hartmut and Ludwig, Otto (ed.), Writing and its use. An interdisciplinary manual, 1st half volume, Berlin / New York: Walter de Gruyter 1994 (= Handbooks for linguistics and communication studies 10.1), pp. 48–65, p. 59: "In short: the integration of the various types of writing into a uniform, continuously developing writing act led to an interaction among them and thus fundamentally changed the writing process." Google Scholar
  38. See Spicker, Friedemann: The aphorism. Term and genre from the middle of the 18th century to 1912, Berlin / New York: Walter de Gruyter 1997 (= Sources and research on literary and cultural history 11), pp. 380–395, “The term in the field of tension between knowledge and literature.” CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  43. Deleuze, Gilles: »The literature and the life«, in ders., Criticism and clinic (1993), translated from French by Joseph Vogl, Frankfurt / M .: Suhrkamp Verlag 2000, pp. 11-17.Google Scholar
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